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Bibliografia
2005
◄   L'economia dei beni immateriali: può esistere un patrimonio comune della scienza? Appendici   ►

1. Il mercato dei sogni

[1] R.V. Betig, Critical Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Copyright, in "Critical Studies in Mass Communication", 9 , pp. 131-155, 1992.

[2] E. Kaufer, The Economics of the Patent System, Hardwood Academic Publishers, Boston 1989.

[3] I. Wallerstein, The Capitalist world-economy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1979.

[4] G. Mandich, Privative Industriali Veneziane, in "Rivista di Diritto Commerciale", 1, pp. 511-547, 1936.

[5] P. Drahos e J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London 2002. Per una versione sintetica del contenuto del libro vedere l'articolo degli stessi autori: Who owns the knowledge economy? disponibile al sito: http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk.

[6] R.A. Buchanan, The Power of the Machine. The impact of technology from 1700 to the present, Penguin, Londra 1992.

[7] C. Ooms, Atomic Energy and US Patent Policy, in "Bulleting of Atomic Scientists", 2, pp. 28-29, 1946 e Bennet Boskey, Invention and the Atom, in "Columbia Law Review", 50, pp. 433-447, 1950.

[8] Existence, scope and form of generally internationally accepted and applied standards/norms for protection of intellectual property, WIPO, 1988, WO/INF/29.

[9] L. Weiss, E. Thurbon, J. Mathews, How to kill a country, Allen & Unwin, London, 2004.

[10] T. Avafia, The potential impact of US-SACU FTA negotations on public health in southern Africa, in "Tralac Working Paper", n. 6, 2004.

[11] S.F. Musungu e G. Dutfield, Multilateral agreements and a TRIPs-plus world: The World Intellectual Property Organisation, in "WIPO pubblication", n. 433, 2002. Disponibile al sito: http://geneva.quno.info/pdf/WIPO(A4)final0304.pdf.

[12] J. Boyle, A manifesto on WIPO and the future of intellectual property, in "Duke Law & Technology Review", 0009. Disponibile al sito: http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/dltr/articles/2004dltr0009.html

2. I brevetti fanno male

[1] R. Merton, The Sociology of Science, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1973.

[2] B. Barnes, About Science, Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1985.

[3] W. Nordhaus, Invention, Growth, and Welfare. A Theoretical Treatment of Technological Change, MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 1969.

[4] S. Kortum e J. Lerner, What is behind the recent surge in patenting?, in "Research Policy", n. 27, pp. 273-284, luglio 1998.

[5] W. Cohen, A. Goto et al., R&D Spillovers, Patents and the Incentives to Innovate in Japan and the United States, in "Research Policy", n. 31, pp. 1349-1367, 2002.

[7] P. Moser, How do patent laws influence innovation? Evidence from nineteenth-century world fairs, 2003. Disponibile al sito: [www.missouri.edu/~econwww/Seminars/Papers/w9909.pdf www.missouri.edu/~econwww/Seminars/Papers/w9909.pdf].

[8] A. Jaffe, The U.S. Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Process, in "Research Policy", n. 29, pp. 531-557, 2000.

[10] A. Arora, M. Ceccagnoli e W. Cohen, R&D and the Patent Premium, documenti inediti, febbraio 2002.

[11] M. Sakakibara e L. Branstetter, Do Stronger Patents Induce More Innovation? Evidence from the 1988 Japanese Patent Law Reforms, in "Rand Journal of Economics", n. 32, p. 77, 2001.

[13] F.M. Scherer e S. Weisbrod, Economic effects of strengthening pharmaceutical patent protection in Italy, in "International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law", n. 6, pp. 1009-1024, 1995.

[15] W. Park e J. Ginarte, Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Growth, in "Contemporary Economic Policy", n. 15, pp. 51-61, luglio 1997.

[16] R. Giannetti, Tecnologia e sviluppo economico italiano, 1870-1990, Il Mulino, Bologna 1988.

[17] D. Baker e N. Chatani, Promoting good ideas on drugs: Are patents the best way? The relative efficiency of patent and public support for bio-medical research, in "Briefing paper", Center for Economic and Policy Research, Washington 2002.

[18] LASER, Scienza Spa. Scienziati, tecnici e conflitti, DeriveApprodi, Roma 2002.

[19] A. Saxenian, Il vantaggio competitivo dei sistemi locali nell'era della globalizzazione. Cultura e competizione nella Silicon Valley e nella Route 128, Franco Angeli, Milano 2002.

[20] Y. Benkler, Commons-Based Strategies and the Problems of Patents, in "Science", n. 305, pp. 1110-1111, 2004.

[21] A. Jaffe e J. Lerner, Innovation and Its Discontents: How Our Broken Patent System Is Endangering Innovation and Progress, and What to Do About It, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2004.

[22] M. Greenberg, The lesson of the German-owned US chemical patents, in "Journal of the Patent Office Society", n. 9, p. 26, 1926-27.

[23] A. Kudo, IG Farben in Japan: the transfer of technology and managerial skills, in "Business History", n. 1, pp. 159–183, 1994.

[24] Diamond v. Diehr, 450 U.S. 175, 101 S. Ct. 1048, 67 L. Ed. 2d 155, available at 1981 U.S. LEXIS 73, 209 U.S.P.Q. (BNA) 1 (1981).

[25] Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, Policy and Global Affairs Division, A patent system for the 21st century, National Academies Press, Washington 2004.

[26] C. Nottenburg, P.G. Pardey e B.D. Wright, Accessing other peoples technology for non-profit research, in "Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics", n. 46, vol. 3, pp. 389-416, 2002.

[27] Rapporto Commissione delle Comunità Europee al Parlamento e al Consiglio Europeo, 2002. Disponibile al sito: www.stepc.gr/~katharak/BIOTECH_PAT_EUROPE_REP_EUR_PARL.pdf.

[28] UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, Scientific Publications: Free for all?, 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctech/1200/120002.htm.

[29] A. Odlyzko, Competition and cooperation: Libraries and publishers in the transition to electronic scholarly journals, in "Journal of Electronic Publishing", n. 4, giugno 1999, e in "Journal Scholarly Publishing", n. 30, pp. 163-185, luglio 1999.

[30] Sqw, Costs and business models in scientific research publishing. A report commissioned by the Wellcome Trust, 2004.

[31] A. McCook, Open access to US govt work urged, in "The Scientist", luglio 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20040721/01.

[32] Nih, Enhanced Public Access to Nih research information, comunicato stampa del 3 settembre 2004. Vedi bibliografia cap. 3 n. 21.

[33] Dichiarazione di Berlino, Accesso aperto alla conoscenza scientifica e umanistica, 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.zim.mpg.de/openaccess-berlin/berlin_declaration.pdf e in allegato in questo libro a p. 152.

[34] P.A. David, A Tragedy Of The Public Knowledge "Commons"?, in "Electronic Journal of Intellectual Property Rights", 2000. Disponibile al sito: http://www.oiprc.ox.ac.uk/EJWP0400.pdf.

[35] R. Merges e R. Nelson, On the Complex Economics of Patent Scope, in "Columbia Law Review", n. 4, pp. 839-916, 1990.

[36] B. H. Hall e R. Ham Ziedonis, The patent paradox revisited: an empirical study of patenting in the U.S. semiconductor industry, 1979-1995, in "RAND Journal of Economics", vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 101-128, 2001.

[37] W. Cohen, R. Nelson e J.P. Walsh, Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not), in "Working Paper", n. w7552, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.

[38] Parke-Davis & Co. v. H.K. Mulford & Co., 189 F. 95, 103 (C.C.S.D.N.Y. 1911) (L. Hand, Judge).

[39] Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303, 100 S. Ct. 2204, 65 L. Ed. 3d 144, available at 1980 U.S. LEXIS 112, 206 U.S.P.Q. (BNA) 193 (1980). La decisione fu presa con cinque voti a favore contro quattro.

(40) D.V. Kevles, A history of patenting life in the Us with comparative attention to Europe and Canada, Report to the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies, UE, Bruxelles 2002.

[41] Scripps Clinic & Research Found. v. Genentech, Inc., 666 F. Supp. 1379, 1390, 3 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1481, 1488 (N.D. Cal. 1987). Il brevetto fu poi invalidato (per ragioni indipendenti) dalla sentenza Scripps Clinic & Research Found. v. Genentech, Inc., 707 F. Supp. 1547, 11 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1187 (N.D. Cal. 1989).

(43) Econexus, GenewatchUK, Patenting Genes, Stifling Research and Jeopardising Healthcare, aprile 2001. Disponilbile al sito: http://genewatch.org/Patenting/Reports/Patents.pdf.

[44] M.K. Cho et al., Effects of gene patents and licenses on the provision of clinical genetic testing services, in "Journal of Molecular Diagnostics", n. 5, 2003.

[45] J.F. Merz, D.G. Kriss, D.D.G. Leonard e M.K. Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test, in "Nature", n. 415, pp. 577-579, 2002.

[46] P. Brickley, Preemptive SARS patents, in "The Scientist", 9 maggio 2003. Disponilbile al sito: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20030509/02.

[47] G. Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons, in "Science", n. 162, pp. 1243-1248, 1968.

[48] M. Heller e R. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation: The Anticommons in Biomedical Research, in "Science", n. 280, pp. 698-701, 1998.

[49] Gottschalk v. Benson, 409 U.S. 63, 93 S. Ct. 253, 34 L. Ed. 2d 273, available at 1972 U.S. LEXIS 129, 175 U.S.P.Q. (BNA) 673 (1972).

[50] In re Alappat, 33 F.3d 1526, available at 1994 U.S. App. LEXIS 21129, 31 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1545 (Fed. Cir. 1994).

[51] AT&T Corp. v. Excel Communications, Inc., 172 F.3d 1352, available at 1999 U.S. App. LEXIS 7221, 50 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1447 (Fed. Cir. 1999).

[52] Daniel Terdiman, EFF publishes patent hit list, in "Wired", giugno 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,64038,00.html.

[53] IBM: 500 brevetti USA per la comunità open source, 11 gennaio 2005. Disponibile al sito: http://www.ibm.com/news/it/2004/12/131.html.

[54] R. Henderson, A.B. Jaffe e M. Trajtenberg, Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965-88, in "Review of Economics and Statistics", n. 80, pp. 119-127, 1998.

[55] L. Nelsen, The Rise of Intellectual Property Protection in The American University, in "Science", n. 279, pp. 1460-1461, 1998.

[56] A. Rai, The Proper Scope of IP Rights in the Post-Genomics Era, in "Journal of Science and Technology Law", n. 8, 2002. Disponibile al sito: http://www.bu.edu/law/scitech/volume8/Panel5.pdf.

[57] D. Malakoff, Universities Ask Supreme Court to Reverse Patent Ruling, in "Science", n. 299, pp. 26-27, 2003.

[58] T. Agres, National Research Council Proposes an Academic Patent Shield, in "The Scientist", n. 18, 2004.

[59] L. Pressman, AUTM Licensing Survey: FY 2001, Association of University Technology Managers, Northbrook 2003.

3. Un copyleft in campo brevettuale

[1] P. Bombarda, L. Lambertini e R. Rovelli, Dalla ricerca alla cura: perché è così difficile assicurare la diffusione dei farmaci essenziali contro l'AIDS nei paesi poveri?, dispensa preparata per il corso di Microeconomia ed Economia delle istituzioni, facoltà di Scienze Politiche, Università di Forlì, 18 maggio 2002. Disponibile al sito: http://www.dse.unibo.it/rovelli/Aids/Aids-cura.pdf.

[2] Aventis Press Release 26 settembre 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.sanofi-aventis.com/.

[3] K.J. Arrow, "Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention", The rate and direction of economic Activities: Economic and Social Factor, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1963.

[4] http://www.prosa.it/philosophy/gpl.txt.

[6] http://www.opensource.org.

[7] http://www.creativecommons.org.

[8] S. Saha, S. Saint e D.A. Christakis, Impact factor: a valid measure of journal quality?, in "Journal of the Medical Library Association", n. 91, pp. 42-46, 2003.

[9] C.B. Saper, What's in a citation impact factor? A journal by any other measure, in "Journal of Comparative Neurology", n. 411, pp. 1-2, 1999.

[10] E.J. Gallagher e D.P. Barnaby, Evidence of methodologic bias in the derivation of the Science Citation Index impact factor, in "Annals of Emergency Medicine", n. 31, pp. 83-86, 1998

[11] G.C. Sieck, The "impact factor": what it means to the impact of applied physiology, in "Journal of Applied Physiology", n. 89, pp. 865-866, 2000.

[12] A. Fassoulaki, K. Papilas, A. Paraskeva e K. Patris, Impact factor bias and proposed adjustments for its determination, in "Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, n. 46, pp. 902-905, 2002.

[13] I laboratori nazionali di fisica di Los Alamos mantengono un archivio online di preprints, ovvero manoscritti in attesa di pubblicazione: http://xxx.lan.gov.

[14] A. Odlyzko, Competition and cooperation: Libraries and publishers in the transition to electronic scholarly journals, in "Journal of Electronic Publishing", n. 4, giugno 1999, e in "Journal Scholarly Publishing", n. 30, luglio 1999, pp. 163-185. Disponibile al sito: http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/04-04/odlyzko0404.html.

[15] SQW, Costs and business models in scientific research publishing. A report commissioned by the Wellcome Trust, 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/assets/wtd003184.pdf.

[16] E. Ernst, T. Saradeth e K.L. Resch, Drawbacks of peer review, in "Nature", n. 363, p. 296, 1993.

[17] Per avere un esempio di valutazione dell'informazione auto-organizzata, si veda www.slashdot.org.

[18] Per sistemi innovativi di valutazione, si vedano i mercati telematici di www.ebay.com, www.amazon.com, www.epinions.com.

[19] A. McCook, Open access to US govt work urged, in "The Scientist", 21 luglio 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20040721/01.

[20] UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, Scientific Publications: Free for all?, quattordicesimo rapporto, novembre 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctech/1200/120002.htm.

[21] Nih, Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information, comunicato stampa del 3 settembre 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-04-064.html.

[22] The Publishers Association, UK publishers welcome Government's support for current practices in science publishing. Disponibile al sito: http://www.publishers.org.uk/paweb/paweb.nsf/pubframe!Open.

[23] K.N. Cukier, Open source biotech, in "The Acumen Journal of Life Sciences", vol. 1, n. 3, settembre/ottobre 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.cukier.com/writings/opensourcebiotech.html.

[24] P. Brickley, Preemptive SARS patents, in "The Scientist", 9 maggio 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20030509/02.

[25] S. Mayor, Charity wins BRCA2 patent, in "The Scientist", 13 febbraio 2004. Disponibile al sito: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20040213/02.

[26] C. Hare, Towards an ontology of intellectual property: a suggested reconstruction, in "The American Journal of Economics and Sociology", n. 58, pp. 285-297, 1999. Disponibile al sito: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_2_58/ai_55084091.

[27] http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/.

[28] E.I. Schwartz, Patents go global, in "Technology Review", maggio 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/03/05/Schwartz0503.asp.

[29] N. Gallini e S. Scotchmer, "Intellectual Property: When Is It the Best Incentive System?", in Innovation Policy and the Economy, a cura di Adam Jaffe, Joshua Lerner e Scott Stern, pp. 51-78, Mit Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 2000. Cfr. anche a cura di F. Cafaggi, A. Nicita e U. Pagano, Legal Orderings and Economic Institutions in "Routledge Studies in Political Economy", 2002. Disponibile anche al sito: http://socrates.berkeley.edu/scotch/G_and_S.pdf.

[30] B.A. Weisbrod, Solving the Drug dilemma, in "The Washington Post", 22 agosto 2003. Disponibile anche al sito: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/newsletter/iprn0312/weisbrod.html.

[31] www.innocentive.com.

[32] P. Drahos e J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London 2002.

[33] T.J. Hubbard e J. Love, Medicines without barriers, in "New Scientist", 14 giugno 2003.

[34] E. Mullins, Murder by Injection, National Council for Medical Research, Staunton 1988.

[35] R.D. Nelson e R. Mazzoleni, "Economic Theories About the Costs and Benefits of Patents", in Intellectual Property Rights and Research Tools in Molecular Biology. Summary of a Workshop Held at the National Academies of Sciences, February 15-16, 1996, National Academy Press, Washington 1997. Disponibile al sito: http://books.nap.edu/html/property/3.html#chap3.

[36] http://rsss.anu.edu.au/janeth/Whatis.html.

[37] D. Baker e N. Chatani, "Promoting good ideas on drugs: Are patents the best way? The relative efficiency of patent and public support for bio-medical research", Briefing paper, Center for Economic and Policy Research, Washington 2002.

[38] R. Mazzoleni e R.R. Nelson, The benefits and costs of strong patent protection: a contribution to the current debate, in "Research Policy", vol. 27, n. 3, pp. 273-284, luglio 1998.

[39] S. Kortum e J. Lerner, What is behind the recent surge in patenting?, in "Research Policy", vol. 28, n. 3, pp. 1-22, luglio 1998.

[40] R. Henderson, A. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg e M.P. Page, Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965-1988, in "The Review of Economics and Statistics", vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 119-127, 1998. Disponibile al sito: http://www.tau.ac.il/manuel/pdfs/univeristies_as_a_source.pdf.

[41] R. Merton, The Sociology of Science, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1973.

[42] E. Mansfield, Patents and innovation, in "Management Science", n. 32, pp. 173-181, febbraio 1986.

[43] Open Archive Initiative, www.openarchives.org.

[44] S. Bachrach, R.S. Berry, M. Blume, T. von Foerster, A. Fowler, P. Ginsparg, S. Heller, N. Kestner, A. Odlyzko, A. Okerson, R. Wigington e A. Moffat, Who Should Own Scientific Papers?, in "Science", vol. 281, pp. 1459-1460, settembre 1998.

[45] http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/ è un sito che permette la ricerca e la consultazione integrale di circa quattro milioni di pubblicazioni scientifiche su 390 archivi elettronici.

[46] http://scholar.google.com è un motore di ricerca capace di selezionare tutti i documenti di interesse accademico disponibili sul World Wide Web.

[47] http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov è l'archivio digitale gratuito della Biblioteca nazionale americana di medicina.

[48] P.O. Brown, M.B. Eisen, H. Varmus, Why PLoS Became a Publisher. Disponibile anche al sito: http://ls126.molsci.org/files/PLOS_-_Editorial_2.pdf.

[49] J. Testa e M.E. McVeigh, The Impact of Open Access Journals A Citation Study from Thomson ISI, 2004. Disponibile anche al sito: http://www.isinet.com/media/presentrep/acropdf/impact-oa-journals.pdf.

[50] A. Erwin, "The Book of Knowledge: Investing in the Growing Education and Training Industry", Merryl Lynch report, 1999.

[51] K. Larsen, J.P. Martin e R. Morris, Trade in Educational Services: Trends and Emerging Issues, in "The World Economy", vol. 25, pp. 849-868, 2002. Disponibile anche al sito: http://www.esib.org/commodification/documents/TRADEEDU.pdf.

[52] K. Popper, La società aperta e i suoi nemici, Armando, Roma 1981.

[53] www.cambia.org.

[54] www.cambiaIP.org.

[55] BIOS initiative, http://www.bios.net/uploads/images/16/BIOS_Initiative_CC.pdf.

[56] N. Dentico e N. Ford, The Courage to Change the Rules: A Proposal for an Essential Health R-D Treaty, in "PLoS Medicine", n. 2, febbraio 2005.

[57] www.cptech.org.

[58] James Love, Access to Medicines: Solving the Export Problem under TRIPs, in "BRIDGES", n. 4, p. 3, 2002. Disponibile anche al sito: http://www.cptech.org/ip/wto/bridges-exports.html.

[59] J. Love, From TRIPs to RIPs: A better Trade Framework to support Innovation in Medical Technologies, Agence nationale de recherches sur le sida, presentato alla Conferenza sui problemi economici d'accesso alle cure per l'Aids nei paesi in via di sviluppo, Marsiglia, 27 maggio 2003. Disponibile al sito: http://www.cptech.org/slides/trips2rips.doc.

[60] D. Butler, Drive for patent-free innovation on gather pace, in "Nature", n. 424, p. 118, 2003.

[61] D. Butler, Business blacklash kills off software meeting, in "Nature", n. 424, p. 984, 2003.

[62] L. Pray, A cheap personal genome?, in "The Scientist", ottobre 2002. Disponibile al sito: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20021004/04/.

[63] W.E. Evans e M.V. Relling, Pharmacogenomics: Translating Functional Genomics into Rational Therapeutics, in "Science", n. 286, pp. 487-491, 1999.

[64] Per informazioni si veda il sito in inglese http://www.gene.com/gene/products/information/oncology/herceptin/moa.jsp.

[65] B.S. Shastry, SNP alleles in human disease and evolution, in "Journal of Human Genetics", vol. 47, n. 11, pp. 561-566, 2002.

[66] P. Barkham, Scientists size up designer drugs, in "The Guardian", 20 settembre 2004.

[68] M. Roco e W. S. Bainbridge, Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science, Kluwer, Boston 2003.

[69] E. Raymond, The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary, versione italiana disponibile al sito: http://www.apogeonline.com/openpress/doc/cathedral.html.

[70] Z. Griliches, Patent statistics as Economic Indicators: A survey, in "Journal of Economic Literature", n. 28, pp. 1661-1707, 1991.

4. Economia dei beni immateriali

[1] Y. Benkler, Sharing nicely: on shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production, in "The Yale Law journal", n. 114, 273-358.

[2] R. Nelson e S. Winter, An Evolutionary theory of economic change, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.), 1982.

[3] D. Shiller, Capitalismo digitale. Il mercato globale in rete, Università Bocconi editore, Milano 2000.

[4] G. Hardin, The tragedy of the commons, in "Science", n. 162, pp. 1243-1248, 1968.

[5] E. Ostrom, Governing the commons: the evolution of institution for collective action, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.

[6] L. Lessig, The future of ideas, Vintage Books, New York 2001.

[7] A. Thierer e C.W. Crews, Copyfights. The future of intellectual property in the information age, Cato Institute, Washington 2002.

[8] L. Lessig, Free culture, how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity, Penguin press, New York 2000.

[9] M. Bookchin, L'ecologia della libertà, Eleuthera, Milano 1993.

[10] R.F. Nash, The rights of nature, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison 1989.

[11] D.W. Bromley, Making the common work: theory, practice and policy, Ics press, San Francisco 1992.

[12] http://www.bioforge.net.

[13] W. Broothaerts, H. Mitchell, B. Weir et al., CAMBIA research center, Canberra (Australia), in "Nature", n. 433, pp. 629-633, 10 febbraio 2005.

[14] http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-software-forfreedom.it.html#relationship.

[15] Y. Benkler, From consumer to users: shiftting the deeper structures of regulation, in "Federal communication law journal", n. 52, pp. 561-563, 2000.

[16] http://world-information.org/wio/wsis/texts/1071754317.

[17] D. Quist, I.H. Chapela, Transgenic Dna introgressed into maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico, in "Nature", n. 414, pp. 541-543, 2001.

[18] Cogr, The Bayh-Dole Act, A guide to the Law and implementing regulations. Disponibile al sito: http://www.cogr.edu/docs/Bayh_Dole.pdf.

◄   L'economia dei beni immateriali: può esistere un patrimonio comune della scienza? Appendici   ►
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